Wed Nov 10, 2021
In the construction of any building there are two kinds of material required, physical or structural material such as cement, sand, bricks, plastic & wood etc and nonphysical or functional material such as visual comfort, temperature control, noise control, occupancy, site condition, surrounding environment, shape and overall dimension etc.
Here we will discuss about the functional material or design of building not structural material or design of building. Any group of people or individual which is going to build a building first of all decides what kind of building should be constructed. It can be any type, industrial, commercial or residential according to the demand or requirements of the need. He should also keeps in mind what kind of surrounding environment is. How much place is required and which kind of shape will be suitable for the building.
Circular space has very important role in the function of the building. Such as in a school or college there are different sections. Height, length and width have also vital importance in the buildings. In general, measurement or structure of the building is based upon the functional requirements. If we see design of the pyramids those were build to save food and buried families of Faros for long time. They were succeeded in their attempt. Interior decoration is also very important in building. Although there use some physical material such as furniture and such other things are used to decorate the home and some useful household but their setting is much important i.e. Which kind of furniture will be suitable and how much place it will cover. In which position that will be much comfortable.
The site of building and position of bed room, kitchen, wash room and garage etc in the building also have physical and functional impact on surroundings.
In functional requirement of building visual comfort is very important. When the man was living in caves he used to make holes in caves to illuminate inside through the light of sun and moon. When he did not require the light he used to put a stone or other thing to close that passage of light. A successful builder or architecture is he, who takes much care about visual comfort of the building. If there is no electricity or any other mean of artificial light the building should be illuminated with natural light. For this purpose windows and glass doors should be exist in the buildings.Artificial light which we get through electricity should be glare free that makes the place clear and more visible. Everything in the room can be seen easily in that light. Light colors in the room make it more clear in dim light and dark color makes it dull.
Noise is not only a cause of listening problem but also upset our sleep and interrupts our work progress. In the construction of building it should be kept in mind that internal part of the building such as bed room or study room should be away from the outside boundary wall, because the traffic and noise of any passing thing from the street can disturb the residents. In the design of school, main building and class rooms are always in rear and playground near the front door.
Everybody take care about temperature of the building to save from hard and rough weather either it is hot or cold. Even birds also make their nests in the trees to avoid from direct sunshine, wind and rain. Where we care about structural material to avoid from heat and cold, functional material also play a vital role. Direction of the doors and windows, airy passage and some kind of balcony keep the internal temperature natural or save from outer high temperature. Air Conditioner, heater and curtains are also used to keep the internal temperature normal.
Other functional requirements
Electricity, sewerage and potable water supply should be arranged in designing. There should be some facilities of safety available within reach, such as fire fighting tools and shelters etc. There should be easy passage lift and stairs available in the building to go inside or outside and to reach upper story.
Whenever a building is going to be existing an expert should take care about initial cost. It means that salary of employees and prices of materials consist of this initial cost. Value of such cost has much importance because after passing the time and circumstances building becomes old and it requires some kind of maintenance. Breakdown in water, gas and electricity, faint color and broken walls are major causes of required maintenance. So it is necessary that when we have to start construct a new building, nice quality of material should be used for durability and long lasting of building. In the beginning if there will be nice material used that will not required much maintenance. For example, if we see construction of Pyramids of Egypt and Taj Mahal, since centuries these are still in good condition. Cost of maintenance is very low in compare to the structures. More things about these buildings are much admirable, builders provide much extra space for these buildings and broad surrounding is empty that makes the scene beautiful and pleasant environment.
Everywhere in the world there are land legislation and land development authorities of the area make these laws of lands. According to these laws, it is not allow making permanent home in industrial area and building a factory in residential area. LDA approved only those colonies where there are functional design requirement fulfilled. In residential area there should be peaceful and healthy environment. Worship place, shopping malls, education & health facilities and park or garden should be available nearby. Factory or such other work places are not allowed in residential. That makes the surrounding area noisy and polluted. Same as in industrial area there should not be any home or school. Studding in a school and living in home is required calm and peaceful environment, Noise disturbs comfort at home and progress of work goes down.